Де шукати сучасну оперу? #8: Міні-опера, опера і …, постопера, антиопера, опра

Фото: The Norwegian Opra by Trond Reinholdtsen

Восьмий випуск серії подкастів «Де шукати сучасну оперу?» є передостаннім та завершує міні-цикл подкастів-монологів про вектори розвитку опери в історії музики ХХ – початку ХХІ століття. Впродовж цього опера трансформувалась зсередини (спів, якому присвячений другий випуск подкасту, сюжет, про який йшлося у п’ятому випуску, масштаб), ззовні (колаборації з іншими жанрами), а також преосмислювалась жанрово. «Замість», «після», та «проти» опери з’являлися варіанти «неопер»: постопера, пост-операційна постановка, антиопера, анти-антиопера, опра — про походження цих жанрів слухайте у восьмому епізоді подкасту.

Восьмий епізод подкасту присвячений питанням:

  • «small is the new big», або зменшення тривалості опери
  • опера в іншому музичному стилі (джаз, фольк) та інший стиль в опері (рок, реп)
  • поєднання опери з іншими жанрами (ораторія, балет, скетч, реквієм тощо)
  • «сам собі жанр» — твори «навколо» опери
  • післяоперність «постопери», протиоперність «антиопери», постмодерновість «пост-операційних постановок», абсурд «анти-антиопери» та новооперність «Норвезької опри»

Ставити правильні питання та шукати відповіді під час зацікавлення темою сучасної опери допомагала наукова консультантка та менторка — мистецтвознавиця Олена Корчова.

Впродовж ХХ – ХХІ століття опера трансформувалася у трьох напрямках. Першим став внутрішньооперний — модифікація того, що в опері вже є (сюжет, спів, масштаб). Наступним рівнем розширення оперних меж стали зовнішньооперні впливи — залучення музичної мови інших стилів (джаз чи фольк), або характеристик інших жанрів (жанрові колаборації опери-ораторії, опери-скетчу тощо). Врешті-решт, ставлення композиторів змінювалося і до самого жанру, тож вони обирали або не називати свої твори операми, або створювати опери після (пост-) та проти (анти-) опери.

«Small is the new big», — проповідують програмісти сьогодні, але для опери зменшення у розмірі мало значення ще у минулому столітті. Це загалом можна окреслити, як певне тяжіння до камерності — міні- та монооперності. Та доки опера прагне до зменшення своїх масштабів, найменування «опера» як символ великого, завершеного, серйозного дають творам, що не мають таких характеристик — рок- та реп-операм.

Справжньою грою з жанром є додавання різноманітних приставок до слова «опера» та утворення з пвсевдонових неоперних жанрів, котрі насправді вкладаються у змінений у ХХ столітті канон опери. Постопери, пост-операційні постановки, антиопери, анти-антиопери, опри з’являються з різних причин, проте спільним є бачення того, що опера — сформований жанр, що завершившив свій розвиток на межі ХІХ – ХХ століть. За незмоги змінити консервативне бачення опери з’являються приставки «пост-» як зважена констатація післяоперності, або ж «анти-» як певного роду протест. 

Детальніше про усі варіанти «неопер», навіщо новації в опері, чому оперу «продають» як соціальний жанр та нащо композиторам писати опери — слухайте у подкасті «Де шукати сучасну оперу?» #8 Міні-опера, опера і …, постопера, антиопера, опра:

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У подкасті є посилання на музику опер:

Арнольд Шенберг «Щаслива рука», «Очікування», «Мойсей та Арон», Даріус Мійо «Бідний матрос», три опери-хвилинки, «Святий Людовик — король Франції», Пауль Гіндеміт «Туди й назад», Каньє Вест «Марія», Франсіс Пуленк «Людський голос», Віктор Губаренко «Ніжність», Мішель ван дер Аа «Одне», Наталя Пшенічнікова «Голос Зангезі», Джордж Гершвін «Поргі та Бесс», Євген Станкович «Цвіт папороті», Моріс Равель «Дитя і чари», Бенджамін Бріттен «Притчі для виконання у церкві» («Ріка Кьорлью», «Блудний син», «Пічне дійство»), Роман Григорів, Ілля Разумейко «Йов», «Вавилон», «Ковчег», «Газ», Артюр Онеггер «Цар Давид», «Ангітона», Ігор Стравінський «Цар Едіп», Філіп Гласс «Сатьяграха», «Красуня та Чудовисько», Кайя Сааріаго «Емілі», Луїджі Ноно «Нетерпимість», «Під палким сонцем, сповненим кохання», «Прометей», Луїджі Даллапіккола «Йов», Кшиштоф Пендерецький «Втрачений рай», Лучано Беріо «Утіс», Луї Андріссен «Пишучи Вермейеру», «Комедія», Стів Райх «Три казки», Лорі Андерсон «Гомерленд», Тілл, Кук «Німий фільм-опера: Кармен», «З мистецтвом удома», Маурісіо Кагель «Репертуар» з «Державного театру», Мортон Фелдман «Також ні», Дьордь Лігеті «Великий мертвіарх», Тронд Райнхольдтсен «Орфей», «Нарцис», «Ніщо».

 

У подкасті згадуються: 

Єлена Новак «Постопера: перевинайдення співочого тіла», Джеремі Тамблінг «Опера та культура фашизму», Мераб Мамардашвілі «Лекції з античної філософії» (книги), «Композитор Річард Камерон-Вульф про саунд-арт та історичну музику (українська та англійська версії інтерв’ю), Post-operative productions (сайт, маніфест, інтерв’ю), The Norwegian opea (стара та нова версія сайту, critical reflection).

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